A stroke is a phenomenon which is transpired by blockage of an artery or vessel due to a blood clot leading to interrupted blood supply in the brain. Brain cells start dying due to unavailability of oxygen and brain become damaged. When brain cells start dying during a stroke, abilities or functions controlled by that portion of the brain are lost. These abilities or function may include speech, movement and memory. Someone who has suffered a minor stroke may experience only minor problems such as weakness of a leg or arm. People who have suffered massive strokes may even get paralysed on one side or may suffer other types of malfunctions in his body. Some people may recover completely from strokes, but about two third of survivors will have some residual disability.

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Types of stroke

According to medical point of view, the stroke is generally classified into Ischemic, Embolic, Thrombotic, and Hemorrhagic. In most cases, Thrombotic stroke happens in the large arteries and is caused by atherosclerosis followed by rapid blood clotting. Thrombotic stroke patients mostly suffer from coronary disease, and heart failure is a common reason of death in patients who have had this particular type of brain attack. When the stroke occurs due to blockage of small arteries, it is called lacunar infarction stroke and mostly associated with hypertension or high blood pressure.

Results and characteristics of stroke also varied based on sex of the patient. Maeda et al (2012) conducted a study to evaluate the effects of stoke by considering basic patient characteristics, subtype of stroke, results and conditions based on sex. They selected almost forty thousand patients, including 13,323 women suffering with acute ischaemic stroke. Their study used computerized database by using a multicenter, hospital-based registration in different institutes of Japan. The results showed that women were more prone to ischaemic stroke comparative to old men.

How to recognise an early stroke?

The prediction of stroke is tremendously variable and is subjective to availability of collateral circulation. Non-invasive tests are helpful to recognising patients with a poor collateral potential. These methods can be used to identify potential patients who are on risk of stroke.

Voice plays a pivotal role in recognition of stroke early. Acquainted voice is an achievement of the human brain that allows human beings to recognise familiar people even with closed eyes. Human voice recognition is a discrete process which is not associated to language comprehension (Habermann et al 2009).

Depression is another important cause of stroke which provides specific signs of depression present in potential patients. Whitney et al (1993) developed observational depression index  to exploit the measurable symptoms  of potential victims of a stroke.

Messe et al (2004) studied thrombolytic type of drugs which helps to reestablish the flow of blood flow to the brain by removing the clots, which block the flow of blood. The first established treatment for acute ischemic stroke to be approved by the Federal Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in June, 1996 is also known as the clot buster.



Treatment and preventive measures for stroke

Activase is used by the medical professionals to enhance dissolving of a blood clot and should be given within three hours of initial attack of stroke. Patients are advised to go hospital when they feel signals of stroke. Activase is known as tissue plasminogen activator .Thrombolytic therapy should be given as soon as possible to ensure results (Maeda et al 2012).

Messe et al (2004) focused on Concentric Medical’s innovative for patients who are not eligible for receiving recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (RTPA). The system is suitable for patients who get the treatment after the 3-hour. This method is meant to restore blood flow in larger vessels of brain by dissolving blood clots. In this process, a tiny cork-screw shaped device wraps around the clot and traps it for removal.

Maeda et al (2012) introduced another system for treatment named “Penumbra”. This system provides provision for safe revascularization of blocked vessels in case of an ischemic stroke. The system also ensures restoration of brain blood flow by suction to remove the blood clots in the brain in case of stroke.  This system is much revolutionary as before introduction of this system, treatment and rehabilitation was seemed to be limited. This system is a device which is effective even if used within eight hours of the onset of the symptom.

Gotoh et al (2000) conducted the first large scale study by multi-center trials in Japan as a randomized double blind investigation in order to determine the effectiveness of Cilostazol, which is an antiplatelet drug, for preventing the recurrence of cerebral infarction in case of patients who had suffered from cerebral infarction in 1 to 6 months before the entering the trial.


Preventive measures for Stroke

Preventive measures which should considered by a patient are as below:

  1. A person of over age 18 years, good blood pressure is considered to be lower than 120/80. A blood pressure reading or regularly higher than 120/80 and up to 139/89 is considered to be pre-hypertension. High blood pressure situation is when a measurement of 140/90 or more is reached.
  • Be aware about blood pressure. In case of high blood pressure, immediately consult with the doctor.
  • Keep himself relaxed to avoid hypertension.
  • Keep blood pressure apparatus at home for frequent self-monitoring.
  • Keep diet balanced with consultancy of your physician.
  • Get your blood pressure checked at least once a year , more often in case you have a history of high blood pressure or have a background of  a heart attack or a stroke, are diabetic, having kidney disease, high cholesterol, or overweight.
  • Adopt habit of regular exercise besides medicines that facilitate for maintaining blood pressure.

2    In case of fibrillation which is an irregular heartbeat, consult with your physician prescribing medicines.


  1. Smoking habits
  • Smoking multiplies the risk for a stroke.
  • Stop smoking to drop the risk of stroke.
  • Within five years of quitting, the stroke risk is similar as that of a person who has never smoked.
  1. Drink alcohol within a moderate limits.
  • Drinking a glass of beer, wine, or one peg of mixed drink in a day may lower your risk of stroke, provided there is no other medical reason for not drinking alcohol.
  • Heavy drinking can increase the risk for stroke.
  • Remember alcohol is also a drug and it can interact with the other prescribed drugs that you are taking. If you do not drink then don’t start.
  1. Cholesterol level should within standard limits:
  • Lowering your cholesterol will reduce the risk of stroke. High cholesterol level puts you at a greater risk of heart disease, which might increase the stroke risk.
  • LDL and HDL cholesterol should be below 200.
  • High cholesterol may be controlled with exercise and diet; though some time medication become unavoidable.
  • Recent studies have also shown that some individuals even with normal cholesterol levels may lower their risk of stroke by taking certain cholesterol lowering medication.
  1. In case of diabetes, follow doctor’s advice in order to get your blood sugar number under control because:
  • Diabetes puts you at an increased risk of stroke.
  • Exercise healthy diet and medicine with consultancy of your physician..
  1. Inclusion of exercise in your daily routine is highly desirable.
  • Minimal Exercise like a brisk walk, swimming or bicycling can improve your health and reduce the stroke risk.
  • According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, adults should ideally perform moderate level physical activities for at least 30 minutes for five or more days in a week.
  • Before starting an exercise program it is advisable to consult with your physician.
  1. Enjoy a low sodium and low fat diet.
  • Cutting down salt and fat in your diet, you may reduce your blood pressure and lower your risk for stroke.
  • Eat a balanced diet every day, with adequate amount of fruits, vegetables, whole grains and a moderate quantity of protein like meat, fish, milk, nuts, eggs, tofu, and beans.
  1. A fatty deposit can block the arteries that carry blood from your heart to the brain. If left it untreated, these blockages can result in a stroke.
  • Get tests conducted for such problem. Doctors can even listen to the arteries, just like they listen to the heart or look at pictures of the arteries with the help of medical equipment.
  • Circulation problems can mostly be treated with medication. When your doctor prescribes the medicine, take it exactly as recommended.
  • Surgery is necessary in some cases to correct circulation problems such as blocked arteries.
  1. In case, you feel symptoms of stroke, call for immediate help to save your life.


Conclusively, a stroke is a life threatening phenomena with long term acute effects and even death. When a person feels symptoms like numbness or weakness of face, arm or leg especially on one side of the body, trouble in speaking or understanding and loss of balance, he should consult with physician immediately to prevent himself from a stroke. Though, many techniques have been developed for treatment of stroke, but still this a harmful disease due its effects. The physical, cognitive and emotional functioning is influenced by different parts of the brain. The effects are experienced in different degrees at various phases of recovery. Stroke is a trauma and can take long time for recovery..



Work Cited

Andrei  V. Alexandrov, Louis R. Caplan, Merrill P. Spencer Charles H. Tegeler , Viken L. Babikian, and Robert J. Adams,(1998) ,’ The Evolving Role of Transcranial Doppler in Stroke Prevention and Treatment’, Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases, Vol. 7, No. 2,  pp 101-104.

Fay W. Whitney, and  Eileen Michaels Burns (1993), ‘Recognizing depression: Preliminary testing of the Whitney Observational Depression Index’, Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases,Vol.3, No.3, pp.193-201.

Fumio Gotoh, YastloOhashi,(2000),’Design and Organization of the Cilostazol Stroke Prevention Study’,  Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases, Vol. 9, No. 1,pp. 36-44.

Koichiro Maeda, Kazunori Toyoda, Shotai Kobayashi,and Kazuo Minematsu,(2012), ‘Effects of Sex Difference on Clinical Features of Acute Ischemic Stroke in Japan, journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases, Vol. Nill,pp.1-6( Article in Press).

Paelecke-HabermannY, K. Somborski,,  M. Paelecke, M. Knörgen, O. Kneidel, C. Gaul,(2009), ‘Recognizing people by their voices: An fMRI-study of healthy people and patients after stroke’ Clinical Neurophysiology, Vol. 120,N0.1,pp.69-88.

Steven R. Messe´, Steven R. Levine,  David Tanne, Andrew M. Demchuk, Scott E. Kasner, and Brett L. Cucchiara (2004), ‘Dosing Errors May Impact the Risk of rt-PA for Stroke: The Multicenter rt-PA Acute Stroke Survey’, Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases, Vol. 13, No. 1,pp. 35-40.