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Centuries of dreams to reach the only natural satellite of the Earth and a boost to the technological developments in the 20th century. And the result? An incredible one that all Earthlings know. Yes, man finally landed on the moon. The dreams of millions were finally fulfilled by the 3 astronauts who landed on the Moon in the Apollo 11 and finally walked on the surface of the moon – a desire that represented the zenith of cutting edge technological development of the time.

Various moon landings


Although, there was a tough competition between the United States and Soviet Russia on who would be able to make it to the moon first, yet it was the US which finally rose to fame with the incredible human landing on the moon for the first time ever in the history of mankind. Three men, Neil Armstrong, Edwin Aldrin and Michael Collins, participated in a space mission that would forever be remembered as one of the top achievements of mankind. They finally made it to the moon, landed on it, collected samples and made it back safely to the Earth.

For all those alive then and for all in the generations to come, this was one of the proudest moments of the achievements of mankind. But the glory wasn’t spotless for long, as within a few years, the naysayers and the conspirators started spinning tales that the landing on the moon was fake and was some sort of cinematic charisma that was used to fool people, in order to gain political and social leverage over the closest competitors of the US and other countries worldwide, too.



The astronauts on moon

A story that was the ‘oh-so-proud’ moment was soon converted to a hoax that was often up for sneering debates and discussions and became the plot for hundreds of comic stories and billboards. Hundreds of the so-called illustrations and explanations came up all over the internet and all other media like televisions, radios, newspaper with reasons and guesses about why the landing on the moon couldn’t be real and they were faked just to suit the needs of the country and its government.

While such hoaxes have been in the air for quite some time now yet it has been proved again and again that the moon landing of the 1969 was for real and it was indeed the zenith of the technological achievement of the period. Ever since the conspiracy theories came into existence, there has been a strong contention amongst the two groups – one that believes that landing was real and are proud of it and the other that believes that its all an eyewash to gain supremacy in the world.

Serious discussions and debates have been waged all along regarding this matter over the last few decades and proofs and counter theories have been provided by both parties to prove that they are right and the others are wrong. With years of grueling, bitter debates several ideas have come from the side of the conspirators and yet they are nowhere close to proving that the incident was faked while proofs presented by the other side are quite strong to prove and establish, for once and all, that the moon landing was and is real. If you are still in a dilemma and haven’t been yet able to decide if you should really be proud of the event or regard it as a sham, then here are some reasons/explanations that will blow away all delusions and hesitations and establish firmly that man indeed landed on the moon in 1969:

The repeated landings

Neil Armstrong on the Lunar Surface

Yes, that’s the first fact that any naysayer or conspirator must consider before he/she goes on building up a debate. If the landing was a fake, why repeat it? That’s a general question that should pop up in anyone’s mind. If you put up a false show, you don’t repeat it again and again without anything to gain further. One landing or six, the US would still be regarded as the first country to be able to land men on the moon. So, why make several successive moon landings if they were already the pioneers and the event was actually fake? Isn’t that too risky when considered sensibly? Any mistake from any person or a loose lipped person and the whole story would be out to the world to be shamed for all times to come. This may not be a scientific proof, but it is, no doubt, a strong rationale to explain that the landing on the moon did really happen and it was no cutting edge camera trick that got the whole world fooled. Successive faking of the same story – too risky and moreover, too costly without any additional gain.

The rock samples

Men who landed on the moon in 1969 and later on too, collected several kilograms of lunar rock for analysis and brought them back to the earth. The missions from Apollo 11 to Apollo 17 accumulated about 3832 kilograms in the form of rock samples and top scientists from across the world have testified to the fact that these are, in no way, similar to any rock samples that can be found terrestrially, either on land or under the oceans. As such, the difference in the nature of the samples is a strong enough point that this belongs to the moon.

Apollo 15 Genesis Rock


In spite of that, there have been several rumors and theories that say that these rock samples were not collected from the moon itself. To testify their theories, the conspirators suggested that although the sample does not match with any terrestrial samples collected so far, it could be that these are portions of the lunar meteors that struck the earth at different times. Well, this could have been a winning theory for the conspirators, the only issue with this theory is that the lunar meteorites weren’t first found before the 1980s which was way later than the first landings on the moon.

Moon's surface as taken by Apollo 17


If the rock samples were fake, how did the astronauts get them way earlier in 1969 when the meteorites were discovered only in 1980s? Point to consider! And add to that the fact that only around 30 kilograms of meteorite materials were found, much, much less than that collected by astronauts over the time. So, if the landings were actually faked, how did the rocks become natural and that too, in such enormous amounts. Time to start thinking!

No insider to ‘leak’ the story

All stories or hoaxes have, at some point of time or the other, leaked and come to the surface and the sources have always been some insider, could be a big-mouthed pawn or loose-lipped main man. Whatever may the source be, there have always been cases where even full-proof plans or hoaxes have been revealed at a point of time and shamed. But there has been no such incidents in the case of the moon landings. Over 400,000 people were involved during the course of the various Apollo landings on the moon and if they were really fakes, there would have been some inside story, sooner or later.

But any gossip, any conspiracy theory that has surged so far, came only from outsiders and it seems very unlikely that all the thousands of people who were actually involved in the project never ever hushed on the matter, didn’t boast that he knew the truth or even tried to cash on it, if the moon landings were really fake. So before you even start  thinking that these may be a hoax, give a thought!

No comments from the Soviet camp

This was a time when the Cold War was high on both the camps and being able to shame the US in relation to the moon landings could have been too good an opportunity to miss for the Soviet Union. But contrary to the general belief, nothing was said by the Soviets and they kept totally mum, even when proving that the moon landing was fake could have irrevocably harmed the political conditions of the US and done some good to the country. There was not even a single word from the Soviet camp, which could be taken as an indirect proof that the landings were, indeed, real.

Although, some people are of the opinion that the Russians may have been the partners in this fraud, yet that’s too ridiculous to be accepted as the relations between the two countries were far from friendly in those times. Conspiracy theory makes, take a break!

The photographs taken

Many have argued over the period of several years that the photographs of the moon’s surface that were taken by the astronauts were false and they were just ‘filmed’ at some secret studio. If that be true, it seems quite absurd that the huge number of photos that the astronauts took had nothing remotely earthly, except the same lunar surface that we all have been seeing for years afterwards. This would mean that the numerous pictures that we see were perfectly faked, a mammoth task to achieve in those times.

edwin aldrin landing on the moon


Also, there has been much rumor regarding the lights and the shades that we see in the images that were captured by the astronauts. A theory that has been put forward by the naysayers highlight that the shadows in certain pictures seem to be illuminated. According to them, this can only be possible there exists another source of light. But that’s not true. This phenomenon may happen on the moon, even without the existence of a second source of light. Yes, you read it right. This is possible because regolith or the moon dust as we commonly know it, is very reflective and as the moon has no atmosphere of its own, the sun rays that are dulled by the Earth’s atmosphere, come in pretty bright and strike the moon’s surface and the reflection that both these features will collectively cause is much, much sharper and brighter than we see on the Earth and hence, will naturally illuminate close by things, like the shadows in this case. So, no second light source as the conspirators may say.

Edwin Aldrin on moon


Another issue that they have thrown light upon is why are there no stars in the skies in the pictures. You have already started thinking that if it was really on the moon, there should have been lots of stars in the sky as viewed from the moon and if they are not there, maybe the pictures are fake. But are they really? No, there is a scientific and technical reasoning behind this, one too strong to be proven false. As we have already mentioned, the moon reflects much more light than the Earth and as such, in these pictures, the skin of the lunar module is the brightest thing and as such, the photographers or the astronauts had to maintain a very small camera aperture so that they could actually capture clear images without blurring them with the bright light reflecting from the moon’s surface and the lunar module as well. As such, they had no option but to just to concentrate on the moon’s surface, thus barring out the lovely, star-filled skies that the conspirators were looking for. The NVIDIA experts who recently scrutinized the images also mentioned that in some pictures the stars are actually present but they are too small to see and only changing the exposure can actually reveal them.

The controversial spotlight

Also, a few images had a bright shiny object in view that looked much like a spotlight that the cameramen use during the shooting. This brought to the surface another hoax from the naysayers that it was indeed a spotlight that the cameraman may have forgotten to remove. Was it, really? Of course, not. The explanation for it is very simple! We already know that Neil Armstrong had already been on the moon for some time when Aldrin was climbing onto the surface. And what seems to be a spotlight, is actually, the space suit of Armstrong, reflecting off the bright light that had fallen on him. No fakes here! None at all!

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Following are ADR 13/00 Standards/Australian Design Rules for Vehicles after amendment, in due consideration of Vehicle Standard (Australian Design Rule 13/00 – Installation of Lighting and Light Signaling Devices on other than L-Group Vehicles).
The content of the aforesaid rules are sub divided into various categories such as:
1. Name of Standard used
This Standard relates to the Vehicle Standard (Australian Design Rule 13/00 – Installation of Lighting and Light Signaling Devices on motor vehicles except for L-Group Vehicles) as per year 2005.
2. Commencement
Its commencement begins immediately from the succeeding day of its registration.
3. Scope
The laid out bullet points in the rule book of Australian design suggests all the necessary requirements for the frequency and mode of installation of light signaling devices on motor vehicles except for L group vehicles.
This national standard is applicable to the design and manufacturing of vehicles in dependence on what kind/ type of vehicles are been manufactured.
By and large the types are- moped 2 wheels, moped 3 wheels, passenger cars, motor tricycle, heavy and light omnibus, trailers (further sub divided into the categories depending upon their weight) etc. All of these vehicles must adhere to this standard by following at least one of the below mentioned clauses:
(a) There are a series of guidelines stated in the upcoming sections of Exemptions and alternate procedures inclusive of another segment that narrates supplementary general requirements, Individual requirements and disparity to the requirements for lamps in appendix A.
(b) One among the many alternatives talked about in clause 9.
• Exemption and Alternate Procedures
Well by and large scope of the contract, its approval, any further alterations and adjustments in it, chargeable penalties for non- conformity of production activities, its control etc are exempted here. Furthermore, production is almost never opted for discontinuation and communication at every level for approval and disapproval of various kinds of contracts on signaling of devices are pursued in accordance to the regulation no 48.
Many a times, depending on what type/ model of vehicle in particular is being talked about, there are certain bullet points one would be made familiar with if needed that would come under a few more exemptions too. for instance all those vehicles that have filament headlamps attached to them would not call for a-
• dipped beam’s vertical orientation
• leveling of headlight
• the procedure for its measuring.
Similarly there are many more provisions kept aside on the use of cornering lights, rear end lights, fog lamps etc, each of which would be confided with you if considered necessary.


• Installation of extra lights in the automobile when the one previously fitted fail to comply with the entire system.
• Guidelines are mentioned for the installation of these too, one should adhere to them while bringing about this change.
• They should be fitted when the installation of before lamps are non- accessible to the bare eyes and hence mostly irrelevant.
• In addition to this, driving lights should be installed too. Their installation by and large depends on what kind of light exactly does one hopes to obtain as the final output.
For example, white light is obtained by main/ dipped beam headlamp, along with reversing and front fog lamp.
Similarly, lights in the rear end of an automobile use a standard red color lights to signal the various working of the automobile, like application of brakes, use of reverse gears etc.
In case of retro lights that are non triangular shaped, the color amber is aimed to be lit at its read end. It is generally grouped or takes up a part of the light emitting surface in common with rear end lamps, for a synchronized lighting system.

Unless stated in particular the various lights should be used in the same combination following the cliché rule as it is tried and tested. Alterations in their position, electrical connections and basic orientation should be kept at minimum to avoid unnecessary complexity.

These are set of guiding principle complementary to the requirements of the above points. It ‘s not mandatory to install an extra lamp in an automobile but when done they are strictly advised to follow the below rules. We enlist the major ones in particular to keep the bullets points concise and easily comprehensible.
• External cabin lights are prohibited for all vehicles in general except those which are more than 2100m wide. Even then, their installation is optional, if someone chooses to opt for it, they should be placed at the front at horizontal/ vertical angle with any sort of electrical connectivity. Albeit, their number should not go beyond 5 in totality.
• Side marker lamps are places on vehicles 7.5 m long and 2.1 m wide with an outward orientation placed in pair at both the front and the read end of the car and one in the center with any electrical connectivity that suits the user the best.
• Driving lamps: These are not mandatory on motor vehicles and trailers are totally prohibited from using them. No individual specifications are mentioned for them in particular except for that their number should vary in between 2-4 and should be fitted in adjacent to the headlamps.
• Cornering lamps
These are restricted for their usage on trailers and are allowed for installation on other vehicles if their demand is called for. Special guidance for their position as to where they would be located on an automobile is listed in here. For vertical position their height should not surpass the main beamed lights, for length the light giving off surface of the cornering lamp should not surpass the bonnet of the vehicle by 2meters at the maximum. Last but not the least, they should be place in pair, one at each side at the width. Much has been said about its geometric visibility layout too, such as the primary axis of photometry should not directly fall on the surface of the road. Also cornering lamp should be placed at the right end of the longitudinal axis passing through the center of reference at whose other side is in perfect alignment with this
part of the vehicle.
• Similarly guidelines for installation of each additional light such as fog lamps, indicators, reverse lights are mentioned too with slight variations to the above mentioned protocols.

These state that the technical needs of any of the editions of the contract book in entirety at present or in future should comply with the technical requirements of the stated standards at every point.
Further for vehicles under the NC category are required to have a headlamp ranging in between 559 meters to 1372 meters (when measured from the lamp’s center to the ground).

Adhering to all the rules mentioned above, would lead you to the signing off of the final agreement which reiterates the use of different types of light placed at different part of an automobile in excruciating detail. Going through it might seem like boring trite job but one needs to hop through the contract to the major points that interests them. Read the guidelines for the one which you are intending to use and overlook the rest for a quick, pain less procedure.

Thanks for taking the time to read the blog hope you enjoyed it enjoy?
David Smith
[email protected]


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