Automotive Lighting // Providing Australia with Automotive Lighting

Oil is a basic need of today. We are living in such a world where no one can even live without consuming a specific amount of oil daily. We all need oil everywhere. We need it in our houses, in our offices, in our business. So the first thing which can come to an individual’s mind about oil is that it’s a golden sparrow. Yes, it is. This basic need has high rate all over the world, especially in the west. But in spite of all these factors, we can think about some remedy of this. We have to think! Because the price of petrol is rising day by day.

Total World Oil Reserves


We all know that most of the oil is in Middle East countries. They are controlling almost 75% oil reserves. Unfortunately, there is no such scientific technique that can produce a large amount of oil and can fulfill the country’s need. Well, it’s a vague idea that there will be complete elimination of oil need one day in the future, but most publications regarding this case say that if each individual in this world reduce the consumption of fuel by 2%, someday in the future we may solve this high rate problem may be. This article will surely help those people who want novel ideas about reducing the oil dependence and will reduce their daily oil consumption.

petroleum oil decline in Australia

Following four factors should be kept in mind if you want to reduce your oil need: 

  • Maintain your vehicle
  • Smart driving
  • Social websites
  • Walk more and change your lifestyle


1.      Maintain Your Vehicle

Green vehicles

The most economical and wise step which is easy to be taken and very useful is to maintain your vehicle in its best condition. It will help in less oil consumption. An excellent engine cuts your fuel use up to 45 gallons per year. In this way you can save fuel, your money and your surrounding environment. Always try your car’s tires to be well inflated. It will also result in best. Never try to overburden your vehicle. It’s a common observation that the fuel efficiency drops by 1% by every increase in 90-100 pounds of stuff. So always keep these few factors in your mind. These things will help you to maintain your budget as well as they will prove to be very environment-friendly. Moreover, when you go for buying a new car, you must keep in mind that what will be its energy cost.

2.      Smart Driving

Always drive smooth and steady and at an average speed. This will cut off your fuel consumption up to 15%.

3.      Think Maturely And Use Social Websites

There are many social networking websites through which you can communicate with your colleagues. These websites facilitate you to do meetings online or through web cams. So there is no need to go far off places and consume a large amount of fuels.

Conserving fuels

4.      Walk or Cycle More And Change Your Lifestyle

Make this your habit to cycle or walk more; it will keep you fit and healthy. It’s a common observation that the people of countries who have adopted this  habit have less oil dependence problem. So think wisely.

We live in a world whose environment is a serious threat to our generation as well as the coming generations as it is highly polluted. A key factor in increasing the pollution is the usage of motor vehicles. Our next-gen will be forced to create a suitable environment for their sustenance on this planet. The future of the motor industry lies in achieving the design and development of smart modules which are also eco-friendly. 

The 1910 Hudson model


What is a Motor Vehicle?

A motor vehicle is one which is self-propelled, using an engine and does not run on rails, instead uses wheels to run on roads.  The heart of a motor vehicle is an Internal Combustion Engine (ICE).  Trucks, Buses, Cars, motorcycles or other motor driven vehicles – all fall under this category. A major problem with the motor vehicles is that, they require petrol or diesel for working which in turn emits a large amount of pollutants.  This possesses a serious threat to the environment. As such, the motor vehicles/models are being developed for present and future use, must conform to the new environmental requirements and try to minimize resource use and solve issues like combustion, exhaust, etc. that go on to pollute and harm the environment.

BMW facility


Solutions to this problem

A few solutions to avoid the pollution are to embed hybrid vehicles whose motto is to achieve greater fuel economy, to design and manufacture vehicles which run on electricity or solar power, use smart car technology which can sense the condition of the drivers and minimize accidents. The main solution lies in designing cars which minimize the usage of fuels which emit CFC’s.  Usage of Liquid Petrol Gasoline is another technique, but it is a costly affair.  If the energy from non-conventional sources can actually be garnered to run vehicles, then there can be a lot of change in this direction. 

The future of the motor industry

The motor industry involves research & development of new models, manufacturing and marketing the end products. The future will be in developing cost effective vehicles which are fuel efficient. Further the future of motor industry lies in developing vehicles which run on alternate power sources like electricity/battery operated vehicles, go-green using solar power. The vehicles which have better transmission of gear-box, shock absorbing capacity without much fuel wastage, smart sensor technology to assess the condition of the roads and the driver will be in the rise.  As it is practically impossible to abolish petrol and diesel engines, improvising them to reduce the emission and increasing mileage will be another factor.

Modern hybrid conceptFrom


Providing stylish and sleek designs with better aerodynamics to reduce fuel wastage in countering wind resistance for heavy vehicles. These days the battery operated cars face a problem of discharge after certain continuous usage. This will be countered by increasing the battery storage capacity and its efficiency. The usage of hydrogen powered fuel cell technology for cars is under research and may see light in the near future and lead to better sustainable situation.


Centuries of dreams to reach the only natural satellite of the Earth and a boost to the technological developments in the 20th century. And the result? An incredible one that all Earthlings know. Yes, man finally landed on the moon. The dreams of millions were finally fulfilled by the 3 astronauts who landed on the Moon in the Apollo 11 and finally walked on the surface of the moon – a desire that represented the zenith of cutting edge technological development of the time.

Various moon landings


Although, there was a tough competition between the United States and Soviet Russia on who would be able to make it to the moon first, yet it was the US which finally rose to fame with the incredible human landing on the moon for the first time ever in the history of mankind. Three men, Neil Armstrong, Edwin Aldrin and Michael Collins, participated in a space mission that would forever be remembered as one of the top achievements of mankind. They finally made it to the moon, landed on it, collected samples and made it back safely to the Earth.

For all those alive then and for all in the generations to come, this was one of the proudest moments of the achievements of mankind. But the glory wasn’t spotless for long, as within a few years, the naysayers and the conspirators started spinning tales that the landing on the moon was fake and was some sort of cinematic charisma that was used to fool people, in order to gain political and social leverage over the closest competitors of the US and other countries worldwide, too.



The astronauts on moon

A story that was the ‘oh-so-proud’ moment was soon converted to a hoax that was often up for sneering debates and discussions and became the plot for hundreds of comic stories and billboards. Hundreds of the so-called illustrations and explanations came up all over the internet and all other media like televisions, radios, newspaper with reasons and guesses about why the landing on the moon couldn’t be real and they were faked just to suit the needs of the country and its government.

While such hoaxes have been in the air for quite some time now yet it has been proved again and again that the moon landing of the 1969 was for real and it was indeed the zenith of the technological achievement of the period. Ever since the conspiracy theories came into existence, there has been a strong contention amongst the two groups – one that believes that landing was real and are proud of it and the other that believes that its all an eyewash to gain supremacy in the world.

Serious discussions and debates have been waged all along regarding this matter over the last few decades and proofs and counter theories have been provided by both parties to prove that they are right and the others are wrong. With years of grueling, bitter debates several ideas have come from the side of the conspirators and yet they are nowhere close to proving that the incident was faked while proofs presented by the other side are quite strong to prove and establish, for once and all, that the moon landing was and is real. If you are still in a dilemma and haven’t been yet able to decide if you should really be proud of the event or regard it as a sham, then here are some reasons/explanations that will blow away all delusions and hesitations and establish firmly that man indeed landed on the moon in 1969:

The repeated landings

Neil Armstrong on the Lunar Surface

Yes, that’s the first fact that any naysayer or conspirator must consider before he/she goes on building up a debate. If the landing was a fake, why repeat it? That’s a general question that should pop up in anyone’s mind. If you put up a false show, you don’t repeat it again and again without anything to gain further. One landing or six, the US would still be regarded as the first country to be able to land men on the moon. So, why make several successive moon landings if they were already the pioneers and the event was actually fake? Isn’t that too risky when considered sensibly? Any mistake from any person or a loose lipped person and the whole story would be out to the world to be shamed for all times to come. This may not be a scientific proof, but it is, no doubt, a strong rationale to explain that the landing on the moon did really happen and it was no cutting edge camera trick that got the whole world fooled. Successive faking of the same story – too risky and moreover, too costly without any additional gain.

The rock samples

Men who landed on the moon in 1969 and later on too, collected several kilograms of lunar rock for analysis and brought them back to the earth. The missions from Apollo 11 to Apollo 17 accumulated about 3832 kilograms in the form of rock samples and top scientists from across the world have testified to the fact that these are, in no way, similar to any rock samples that can be found terrestrially, either on land or under the oceans. As such, the difference in the nature of the samples is a strong enough point that this belongs to the moon.

Apollo 15 Genesis Rock


In spite of that, there have been several rumors and theories that say that these rock samples were not collected from the moon itself. To testify their theories, the conspirators suggested that although the sample does not match with any terrestrial samples collected so far, it could be that these are portions of the lunar meteors that struck the earth at different times. Well, this could have been a winning theory for the conspirators, the only issue with this theory is that the lunar meteorites weren’t first found before the 1980s which was way later than the first landings on the moon.

Moon's surface as taken by Apollo 17


If the rock samples were fake, how did the astronauts get them way earlier in 1969 when the meteorites were discovered only in 1980s? Point to consider! And add to that the fact that only around 30 kilograms of meteorite materials were found, much, much less than that collected by astronauts over the time. So, if the landings were actually faked, how did the rocks become natural and that too, in such enormous amounts. Time to start thinking!

No insider to ‘leak’ the story

All stories or hoaxes have, at some point of time or the other, leaked and come to the surface and the sources have always been some insider, could be a big-mouthed pawn or loose-lipped main man. Whatever may the source be, there have always been cases where even full-proof plans or hoaxes have been revealed at a point of time and shamed. But there has been no such incidents in the case of the moon landings. Over 400,000 people were involved during the course of the various Apollo landings on the moon and if they were really fakes, there would have been some inside story, sooner or later.

But any gossip, any conspiracy theory that has surged so far, came only from outsiders and it seems very unlikely that all the thousands of people who were actually involved in the project never ever hushed on the matter, didn’t boast that he knew the truth or even tried to cash on it, if the moon landings were really fake. So before you even start  thinking that these may be a hoax, give a thought!

No comments from the Soviet camp

This was a time when the Cold War was high on both the camps and being able to shame the US in relation to the moon landings could have been too good an opportunity to miss for the Soviet Union. But contrary to the general belief, nothing was said by the Soviets and they kept totally mum, even when proving that the moon landing was fake could have irrevocably harmed the political conditions of the US and done some good to the country. There was not even a single word from the Soviet camp, which could be taken as an indirect proof that the landings were, indeed, real.

Although, some people are of the opinion that the Russians may have been the partners in this fraud, yet that’s too ridiculous to be accepted as the relations between the two countries were far from friendly in those times. Conspiracy theory makes, take a break!

The photographs taken

Many have argued over the period of several years that the photographs of the moon’s surface that were taken by the astronauts were false and they were just ‘filmed’ at some secret studio. If that be true, it seems quite absurd that the huge number of photos that the astronauts took had nothing remotely earthly, except the same lunar surface that we all have been seeing for years afterwards. This would mean that the numerous pictures that we see were perfectly faked, a mammoth task to achieve in those times.

edwin aldrin landing on the moon


Also, there has been much rumor regarding the lights and the shades that we see in the images that were captured by the astronauts. A theory that has been put forward by the naysayers highlight that the shadows in certain pictures seem to be illuminated. According to them, this can only be possible there exists another source of light. But that’s not true. This phenomenon may happen on the moon, even without the existence of a second source of light. Yes, you read it right. This is possible because regolith or the moon dust as we commonly know it, is very reflective and as the moon has no atmosphere of its own, the sun rays that are dulled by the Earth’s atmosphere, come in pretty bright and strike the moon’s surface and the reflection that both these features will collectively cause is much, much sharper and brighter than we see on the Earth and hence, will naturally illuminate close by things, like the shadows in this case. So, no second light source as the conspirators may say.

Edwin Aldrin on moon


Another issue that they have thrown light upon is why are there no stars in the skies in the pictures. You have already started thinking that if it was really on the moon, there should have been lots of stars in the sky as viewed from the moon and if they are not there, maybe the pictures are fake. But are they really? No, there is a scientific and technical reasoning behind this, one too strong to be proven false. As we have already mentioned, the moon reflects much more light than the Earth and as such, in these pictures, the skin of the lunar module is the brightest thing and as such, the photographers or the astronauts had to maintain a very small camera aperture so that they could actually capture clear images without blurring them with the bright light reflecting from the moon’s surface and the lunar module as well. As such, they had no option but to just to concentrate on the moon’s surface, thus barring out the lovely, star-filled skies that the conspirators were looking for. The NVIDIA experts who recently scrutinized the images also mentioned that in some pictures the stars are actually present but they are too small to see and only changing the exposure can actually reveal them.

The controversial spotlight

Also, a few images had a bright shiny object in view that looked much like a spotlight that the cameramen use during the shooting. This brought to the surface another hoax from the naysayers that it was indeed a spotlight that the cameraman may have forgotten to remove. Was it, really? Of course, not. The explanation for it is very simple! We already know that Neil Armstrong had already been on the moon for some time when Aldrin was climbing onto the surface. And what seems to be a spotlight, is actually, the space suit of Armstrong, reflecting off the bright light that had fallen on him. No fakes here! None at all!

Have you already been to the top cities of Australia like Canberra, Melbourne or Sydney or you want to escape from the huge crowd there and yet be close to nature and life? Well then, Adelaide should be your destination of choice. Being built in the laps of nature, this city has much more to offer to its visitors than the well structured buildings and the grand mansions. Attractions, both in and around the city, will ensure that you not only have a good time but a lifetime memory.

Adelaide map

When it comes to deciding the places that are a must visit while in Adelaide, any visitor may fall in a dilemma as each place may seem to be better than the other and not to be missed. But most tourists do not have much time to explore all the gems of the city and that is why, we present to you a list of the Top 10 things that you mustn’t skip if you are planning to visit Adelaide:

1.     Haigh’s Chocolates

Haigh’s Chocolates

Whether you are a girl or a boy, a child or an adult, love for chocolates is something that we all cherish and when you have something like Haigh’s Chocolates for you waiting in Adelaide, you sure will make it your first destination. Chocolates in all forms, bars, truffles and all other ordinary and extraordinary forms; you are sure to get them here only. Not only that, you can have a tour of the factory too, enjoying how your favorite dessert is made and formed into all sorts of moulds that we all like. Eat some and bring home some!

      Getting there

The factory or the store, whatever you may call it as, is located very close to the city’s center and takes about a quarter of an hour to reach from the Airport. The can fare will be in the range of $15-$20.

2.     North Terrace

If buildings and massive structures interest you both, then the North Terrace would be the right place to start your tour days. Historic buildings as well as cultural centers are what mark the streets in this ‘green’ boulevard. You start on with the Parliament House that you will find where the North Terrace crosses the King William Street. This is one of the most significant structures that are dotted on the face of Adelaide.

North Terrace


Once you have had a fill at the Parliament House, you can easily go down street and find the Art Gallery of South Australia, the South Australian Museum and the State Library of South Australia, all side by side, ready to fulfill your dose of nostalgia and culture. The day doesn’t end here as at a small distance, you have the Gothic style Mitchell Building of the University of Adelaide, all ready to make you marvel at its built and beauty.

       Getting there

If you are coming from the direction of the Airport, the North Terrace will be at a driving distance of around 20 minutes and cost you around $30. However, if you are staying in any of the hotels in the CBD, the ride will cost you around $10 and take about 5-7 minutes.

3.     Adelaide Central Market

Adelaide Central Market

This is not the usual shopping market where you go looking for dresses, bags, jewelry, furniture, etc. The Adelaide Central Market gives a completely different experience as you can go shopping for vegetables, fruits, cheeses, baked goods, flowers and then enjoy a huge variety of local and continental delicacies that are sure to blow you off your feet. Shop for families and friends and let the foodie be happy too!

      Getting there

The market can easily be located to the west of the Victoria Square and is a 5-7 minute drive from the city center that will cost about $10 in cab fares. If you are arriving from the airport, it will cost about $25 for a 15 minute drive.

4.     Port Adelaide

Port Adelaide

This place may be a bit off from the city’s center, but you cannot afford to miss it if you are into history and good food as well. Yes, apart from hosting a number of grand historic buildings like the Courthouse, Customs House and popular attractions like Aviation Museum, Maritime Museum and Railway Museum, the area is well known for its variety of fantastic restaurants and the fresh fish from the fishermen’s market.

      Getting there

The Adelaide port is about 15 kilometers away from the Airport and would cost around $25-$30 as the cab fare.

5.     Glenelg


If you have seen too much of man made icons, it’s time to enjoy nature at Adelaide and the first peak would definitely be a trip to Glenelg. Although not typically ‘in’ Adelaide, Glenelg is just about half an hour ride from the city’s center and once you reach the place, you will hardly like to go back. Dotted with numerous boutique hotels, sidewalk cafes and entertainment houses, Glenelg is the place to relax, have fun and unwind. You can also enjoy the beaches, go swimming or better enjoy a dive with the dolphins!  

      Getting there

For about a 25 minute trip from the CBD, the taxi fare would be around $ 20-$25.

6.     Barossa Valley

In the Barossa Valley

No missing a trip to the Barossa Valley if you are in Adelaide. Though Australia is well-known for its great wines, one of its gems lie here in the Barossa Valley. Being one of the largest producers of wine in Australia, this region has practically become the wine capital of the country and attracts visitors from all parts of the country and worldwide. Not only in quantity, with wines like Shiraz on the producing list, Barossa is now one of the favorites of the connoisseurs too. Enjoy some of the best wines at the various small and big cellars, enjoy the delicacies at different restaurants and life will be like ‘perfect’.

      Getting there

The Barossa Valley is at quite a distance from Adelaide and takes about an hour to reach from the heart of the city and will cost you about $100-$130 for a one way cab ride.

7.     Hahndorf


If you are looking to experience some European culture here in Adelaide, then visiting Hahndorf could really be worthwhile. Being the very first German settlement in these parts, Hahndorf has developed a very strong European culture, especially German. From craft shops to German style bakeries and pubs, this region has it all German. The location of this place is ideal too, as a gate away from the busy city life and to get a taste of life, the European way.

     Getting there

Buses are available from the CBD and you may also opt to reach the place via cabs. The cab ride takes about 45 minutes and can cost you around $50-$60.

8.     The Adelaide Zoo

The Adelaide Zoo

Each place has its own treasures as a man-made sanctuary for animals and the Adelaide Zoo is the one that has grown up in Adelaide. It may not be as big as the zoos in some Australian cities, yet it is one of the most popular zoos in South Australia, and not without reason. Apart from being the home to a huge number of white pandas, the Adelaide Zoo also boasts of its diversity and the collection of rare species of animals.

      Getting there

The Zoo is located conveniently at a driving distance of 20 minutes from the Airport and about 10 minutes from the center of the city.

9.     Oval


Oval has always been a tourist attraction in Adelaide and with the new makeover, you surely can’t miss it. Guided tours, photos and collections on display and an overview of this pretty stadium is sure to make your trip worthwhile.

       Getting there

Its at a fair distance from the Adelaide airport and drive of about 50 minutes, costing about $70-$80 will take you to the stadium.

10.Cleland Wildlife Park

Cleland Wildlife Park

You think Adelaide’s fauna ends with the Zoo? You are wrong here! Visit the Cleland Wildlife Park and you will find yourself in a natural habitat for those cute animals that you enjoy seeing. Emus, potoroos, kangaroos, wallabies – you find them all here. And not only that, you can roam about amongst them, taking snapshots, feeding them and getting to know about them more from the guides.

      Getting there

The wildlife park is about a half an hour distance from the CBD and costs around $50-$60 for a one way ride.

With increased awareness about air pollution and also to ensure better maintenance of the automobiles, a number of rules have been bought into. Amongst these, an important one is in regards to the octane number of the fuel. It has been ruled that higher the octane rating of the fuel, the better is it suited for the car and the environmental conditions as well.

octane ratings

In order to denote the octane number, quite a few ratings are in vogue and the most common among them is the RON or the Research Octane Number and fuels with a higher RON are deemed more fit for present day cars.

Where does all this come from?

Well, initially the considerations about the RON started from the effects that a lower octane contained fuel had on an engine. According to the mechanism of petrol engines, both the fuel and the air are ignited with sparks plugs. As most present day cars that offer high performance come with higher compressibility ratios too, so it’s needed that the fuel can withstand a higher compression and reach the ignition point intact.

And this is exactly what the octane number takes care of. So higher the RON, the better is the ability of the fuel to withstand high compression without breaking off itself and causing knocking within the car engines. This enhances the life of the engine and hence, the car. This is important from the environmental perspective too. If a fuel has a better compressibility capacity, it will not transform into gas at an earlier state and thus, significantly reduce the emissions.

Petrol Station

The difference between RON 91 and RON 95

As already explained, the basic difference is in the octane rating of the two fuel types. While one has a rating of 91, the other stands at 95. And here a 95 is always better than a 91, unlike the usual ranking system. Fuels that come with a RON 95 is evidently better than one that measures just 91 on the RON scale.

As such a RON 95 fuel can give a better performance as a fuel and enhance the performance and longevity of the engine and at the same time it is more ideal for the environment as it gives off lesser emissions as compared to RON 91.

As an extended benefit, RON 95 can give you a gain on the fuel economy. This is because, as the RON 95 can be compressed to a higher level than the RON 91, so the chances of the fuel being converted into gaseous substances are comparatively lesser and so more amount of the fuel is actually used in propelling the car than creating pollution. This increases the number of kilometers that the car can run on 1 unit of the fuel, thereby reducing the total expenditure.

However, this monetary profit is not usually retained as RON 95 fuels cost more than RON 91 fuels and it may happen so that you save less as fuel economy and spend more as fuel price.

So before you actually choose, do make sure what would be good for you and your car as well.

You drive a car, ride a bike or travel in a bus. These are a part of our day to day life. We know that these automobiles run on a variety of fuels, especially petrol. But have you ever wondered that petrol, though being non existent naturally, actually gets formed? Most naturally not, even though our lives will come to stand-still without the use of it. So, here’s your dose of information that will tell you all about how petrol is actually formed.

Uses of petroleum

The base – petroleum

It is a common knowledge that petrol or gasoline is actually formed from petroleum or crude oil as it is known via a process known as distillation. But before we go into how petrol is actually derived from crude oil, let’s take a look at how petroleum is actually formed.

Petroleum is actually formed through a natural process that takes several hundreds of years to complete, which is one of the reasons why nature is unable to replenish the used up petroleum appropriately. The process usually starts with the formation of fossils of organic matter, especially the algae and the zooplanktons that are found in huge numbers/ belts  under the ocean. As the years pass on, these organic fossils start mixing with the other sediments found in the water and start settling at the bottom, while other layers of fossilized organic matter start depositing on the top of it.

Oil extraction

Over the years, as the number of these fossilized layers increase, an extreme pressure is created at the bottom and gets applied on the bottom most layer of the fossilized remains. Pressure and intense heat on the lower layer gradually convert these fossilized materials into kerogen (a wax like substance) which, when gets more heated, gets converted into gaseous hydrocarbons and liquid with the initiation of a process called catagenesis. A further process known as pyrolysis that involves a number of endothermic reactions between hydrocarbons at high pressure and temperature finally gives rise to the crude oil or petroleum.

Petroleum to petrol – the transformation

As mentioned at the very start, distillation of petroleum helps in the formation of petrol. However, the petrol that we get immediately after the distillation of petroleum can no longer be used as fuel due to the harm that it brings to the environment. As such, this pure form is mixed with various additives to give rise to the petrol that we actually use. However, the way that petroleum is processed to form petrol gives rise to different categories of petrol that vary in their quality and also in the degree that they may be harmful to the environment.

Oil platform

The measure of the suitability of the petrol is measured by the octane number, the higher the octane number the better is the fuel with regards to the environment. Also, the aromatic percentage is a matter of concern while producing the right petrol. The lesser the proportion benzene (which gives rise to the aroma), the better is the petrol as a fuel. Naturally, there is a trend to produce and use pure paraffin with a high octane rating.

If you are still one if those who believe that Sydney is Australia’s capital city, then here is some news for you. Sydney no longer remains the capital city of Australia as the position has been long taken over by Canberra; a city that demands a visit due to the fact that it’s a perfect blend of a modern, metropolitan city and abundant natural beauty that automatically creates a lively environ for all to enjoy.

canberra map


You may have already given a thought to making Sydney your next vacation destination, but before you actually decide on it, why not give a thought to the new capital city of Australia! It is, in no way, less interesting than cities like Adelaide, Melbourne or Sydney and you are sure to get a totally different feel that you will cherish throughout your life.

Whether you are coming to Australia from abroad or you are an Australian yourself and want to visit Canberra, then its best that you make a list of the places that you would ‘really’ want to see while in Canberra. A proper planning is quite necessary as you may not always have enough time to see or do everything worth doing or seeing in Canberra and without a proper planning, you may actually miss out on certain attractions that would interest you the most. To help make your travel more efficient and the vacation more pleasurable, here will provide you with a list of ten attractions that you should never miss if you are travelling to Canberra for a vacation:

Australian War Memorial

Irrespective of your nationality, when you are in Canberra, make sure that you pay a visit to the Australian War Memorial. You may have seen several such memorials before, but that shouldn’t be the reason to give this one a miss. Each country has its own sad  story when it comes to war and war heroes and even if they look and feel sobering. It gives an insight into the history of the country as well as the life and sacrifices of the people.

Australian War Memorial

The Australian War Memorial is a tribute as well as a museum that house various artifacts of interest, including cannons, light aircrafts, charts, maps and much more and also offers painstakingly created, elaborate photos or stories that tell a tale of the trials and conflicts faced by the country over a long period of time.

Reaching there

The war memorial is at short distance from the Airport as well as important hotels like the Hyatt. The cab fare will range somewhere between $15-$25 and take around 8-12 minutes when the traffic is normal or light.

National Portrait Gallery


If you are an Australian, enthusiastic about the history of your country or a foreign traveler looking to learn more about the country that you are visiting, a trip to the Gallery is surely a must. You just don’t get to see the portraits, but also busts, sculptures and photography that will tell the whole story. They are elaborately curated and you will hardly find any person of national importance missing.  And the portraits come in a variety of styles and are classified into different periods, according to various historical time periods. From sports to pop to politics, you are sure to find your favorite icon/s being featured here.

Reaching there

The Gallery is within the easy reach of the visitors being located centrally in Canberra. You can hire a cab from the airport or the hotel you are staying at and the drive will cost around $20.

National Arboretum

National Arboretum

You have seen natural beauty and man-made beauties, but have you ever witnessed a man-made natural beauty? Well, if you are wondering what that is exactly, then make sure that you visit the National Arboretum while you are in Canberra. Although it is built on a sad history, yet the arboretum is one of the best scenes that you can treat your eyes to. Stretching over an expanse of 250 hectares, this garden is organized to form a vast expanse of trees, rare and significant, collected from various parts of the world. One gaze and your eyes will be soothed!

Getting there

Driving to the Arboretum is really easy and costs only a few dollars. You may even take your car as the Arboretum has its own paid parking area.

Floriade at the Commonwealth Park


If you are lucky enough to be in Canberra during the Floriade festival, you can have the greatest pleasure of your life. A look at more than 1 million tulips and a variety of other flowers that are arranged methodically to form a distinct pattern which can be noted from atop the Ferris wheel! Flowers, flowers and more flowers everywhere. What can be more beautiful than this?

Getting there

You can easily get a taxi or can from your hotel or the airport and it will cost you around $15-$30 for a one way ride.

Hot Air Balloon Ride

Hot Air Balloon Ride

The clear skies of Canberra and the tranquility of the mornings, make it the perfect time to enjoy a sky ride in a hot air balloon. Enjoy the freedom of life drifting slowly across the vast skies with your friends, family or your dear one. Also, if you are in Canberra during the Canberra Balloon Spectacular fiesta then you have something more to enjoy. Thousands of hot air balloons in a variety of colors and shapes cover the skies with a splash of color.



With a large number of exhibits and interactive sessions to interest visitors of all ages and interests, the National Science and Technology Center is really a place not to be missed. Whether you are keen on knowing more about the human body or the latest developments in the domain of solar panels and solar energy, Questacon has a dose of interest for everyone. You will hardly find yourself burdened with the science-y stuff as Questacon aims to make it all a fun learning process.

Getting there

The Questacon is located at the heart of the city and a very close distance from the National Portrait Gallery or the National Museum of Australia and can be covered in a day. If you are travelling directly from the hotel or the airport, it’s best to hire a cab and that will cost around $15-$20.

Lake Burley Griffin

Lake Burley Griffin

You may have enjoyed numerous lakes in various cities across the world but this differs. The Lake Burley Griffin is a man made lake and is one of the best of its kind. It is a prominent landmark in Canberra and is the ideal location if you are looking to enjoy some water sports like wind surfing, kayaking or yachting.

Getting there

This beautiful attraction is about 9 kilometers from the Canberra Airport and the taxi fare would come to be around $25 for a one way ride.

The Railway Museum

The Railway Museum

Although not a very common tourist attraction, yet the museum is a great throwback into the history of the development of the railways in Canberra. From kids who love a train ride to adults who love to watch the various engines and locos from the past, the Railway museum deserves a visit if you are enthusiastic about it.

Getting there

Within an easy reach from the center of the city, a visit to the Railway Museum would cost you around $25 as a cab or taxi fare.

The Vineyard at Mount Majura

Have you always heard of the fantastic Aussie wine and want to taste some? Make sure that you put the Vineyard at Mount Majura on the list of your top ten and it is guaranteed that you will not be disappointed. The vineyard goes back several decades and at present ranks as one of the best in the region. With a wide variety of both white and red wines to taste along with a nice ambience to enjoy, the Mt. Majura Vineyard will be a good way to relax and enjoy yourself if wine tasting is your thing.

Getting there

The access to the vineyard is very easy and just 15 minutes of driving can take you to the vast ‘land of wines’. If you are hiring a cab, the fares would be around $25 each way.

The Zoo and Aquarium

The Zoo and Aquarium

A fun visit for the kids and a wonderful experience for all adults, the Zoo and Aquarium in Canberra is a facility that stands unparalleled in Australia due to its compact creation and huge collection of terrestrial, avian and marine life. Even though the zoo is a private property, yet is has been maintained to its full glory and is always being updated with new specimens being added from time to time.

Getting there

The facility is located at just a 10 minute driving distance from the center of the city and is in close proximity of the Lake Burley Griffin. The taxi fare would be around $50 from the airport and around $ 30 from areas of the city’s center.

Planning a holiday in Australia? Well, if you are given a choice of just one place in Australia where you would want to be, then that definitely and should be Sydney. Even if you are an Australian yourself and have never been to Sydney, you must immediately start planning on a trip to Sydney, just to be mesmerized with the great city icons, amusement and knowledge parks and of course, the breathtaking beauty of the harbors and add to that the vibrant life that you can enjoy in the city; all combine to give a strong reason to be in the city at least once in your lifetime.

sydney map


When in Sydney, you will be bewildered to find what actually the city has in store for you; everything from soul inspiring to awe inspiring. However, visiting all the places or attractions in Sydney would take quite a long time, which, sadly, most of us do not have. So, if you are only for a few days in Sydney, then its ideal that you make a trip to the most important attractions of the city. To ease your task, here’s a list of the top ten places that you must visit once you are in Sydney:

The Sydney Opera House

The Sydney Opera House

There cannot be any doubt that the Sydney Opera House should be on the list of the top ten attractions of Sydney and in fact, it deserves the first position too. Attracting millions of visitors every year, the architectural caliber and the beautiful location make the Opera House a must visit. Built on the fringe of the land and actually on a finger-like extension, this is one of Australia’s topmost iconic attractions. As you get close by, you will marvel at the impressive structure of the Opera House and if you happen to pass by it on one of the many harbor cruises, you are sure to be mesmerized by its beauty against the backdrop of the city and the extensive, clear blue sky.

Getting there

Reaching the Opera house is quite easy. You can drive there directly from the Sydney airport or from the hotel that you are staying at. The car fares are around $10-$30, if you are traveling from hotels like the Novotel, Park Hyatt, Shangri La or the nearby areas. The cab fares will be around $20- $50 if you are traveling directly from the Sydney Airport, Central Railway Station or White Bay Cruise Terminal.

The Government House in Sydney

The Government House in Sydney

Another architectural beauty reminiscent of the colonial history of Australia, the Government House can be dubbed as the “hidden gems” of the city that’s ready to mesmerize you with its gothic influence and a long history of being the abode of 27 governors since 1846. Being the place that accommodates men of international importance and hosts important meetings of the top ranked Government members, the Government House is the home to a huge number of priceless paintings and furniture that you can marvel at.

Getting there

Reaching there is easier if you hire a cab. The cab prices will range between $10-$50 if you are boarding from the airport, railways station or hotels like the InterContinental.

The Sea Life Aquarium

The Sea Life Aquarium

Want to marvel at a habitat that’s more endowed than what you see on the land? Visit the Sea Life Aquarium and you can witness the marvelous creation of nature. Five distinct marine habitats featuring species that you know oh-so-well and a lot more that you will see for the first time in your life. And you thought that we humans were the best of God’s creation!

Getting there

The Aquarium is located at the very center of the city and is a very small trip in a cab that will cost around $10-$15.

The Sydney Harbor Bridge

Another man made beauty that attracts the attention of anyone who visits Sydney. Ranked as the best amongst the structural beauties of the city prior to the Opera House, the bridge is often called as ‘Coathanger’ by the locals of the city and till date ranks as the 6th longest steel arch bridges in the world.

Sydney Harbor Bridge

The best way to enjoy this beauty is to take a ride over the bridge in your own car or a hired cab or having a lazy walk on the walkways, sinking in the beauty of the blue waters on the either sides. 

Jenolan Caves

Jenolan Caves

From man made architecture to natural endowments, Sydney is blessed with all. If you have already been amazed with the structural beauty of the Opera House, it’s time that you get a feel of the natural beauty of Australia. A bit outside the main city of Sydney and actually located in the greater Sydney area, the Jenolan Caves are sure to make you awestruck with its ethereally beautiful caves, fantastic rock formations and also a series of underground rivers that are known to be amongst the best of its class in the world.

Getting there

You can easily hire cabs or self-driven cars from the city and a drive of about 2.5 hours from downtown Sydney will take you to the caves. The average cost of the trip will be between $100-$300.

Circular Quay

Circular Quay

The most important ferry terminal of Sydney is worth a visit due to the vibrancy that it is imbued with. From the traffic of the busy hours to the innumerable cafes in the area to the being the start point for touristy cruises, the Circular Quay is the perfect manifestation of the local life and culture.

Getting there

The importance of the Quay is due to its very central location that makes it very easy to reach from different parts of Sydney. A cab ride will cost you around $15.

Queen Victoria Building

Queen Victoria Building

Love shopping? Well, make sure that you keep this place on your list of the Top 10. Housing a number of different brands and chains, the Queen Victoria Building is sure to give you a lifetime shopping experience. It’s not what you get in the place that will amaze you, but the traditional shopping experience that offers you the essence of the royalty is what make people go gaga over this place. Even window shopping for sometime can really be a treat for your eyes; added to that the glamor of the facades, tinted glass windows, intricate tiling and a majestic staircase.

Getting there

A hired cab can take you to the iconic building for somewhere between $10-$15 from central Sydney.

National Maritime Museum

National Maritime Museum

Whether you are interested in ‘water travel’ or not, do not give this museum a miss as they have the most interesting displays on board that is sure to make you interested. Nothing heavy that will be a lot to process, but just the perfect blend of sensational information and high quality shows to make it worthwhile for visitors of varied interests and age groups.

Getting there

Being centrally located close to the Sydney Harbor, it is easily accessible and must be a part of an interesting day spent visiting the nearby places. 

Luna Park Sydney

Luna Park Sydney

Traveling with kids? Or want to have some fun yourself? No worries! Unwind at the Luna Park in Sydney. Enjoy the traditional Ferris Wheel, go crazy at the Tango Train, find the funny ‘you’ at the Giant Slides or try out your luck at the Crazy Crooners. If you have had enough for the day and thoroughly enthusiastically exhausted, you can sit and gaze at the beautiful harbor views of the Sydney Harbor. Enjoy ice-creams, sandwiches, salads, Fairy Floss and a lot more and live your day ‘just for fun’.

Getting there

A ride to the park from the city center will set you back by around $10-$30.

Kings Cross

If you are traveling solo or with a group of friends, then the Kings Cross will offer you a different flavor to savor during the day and at night as well. This red light area of the city may be avoided by many, but the Bohemian culture of the area is something that will intrigue you. Enjoy the hip cafes, boutique hotels and the delicacies that can be a different experience all together.


View from the 4th floor of the Australian Museum.

View from the 4th floor of the Australian Museum.

Getting there

Kings Cross is located at a drivable distance of around 30 minutes from the Internation Airport in Sydney and about 15 minutes from the Central Railway Station.

Melbourne! Whether you follow cricket or not, you must have surely heard the name of the Melbourne Cricket Ground at least once in your life. And not without reason. MCG is popular amongst the citizens of all countries for being the venue of some of the historical and record breaking performances that form golden chapters of the cricket history.

Melbourne Map

 But that’s not all of Melbourne! Melbourne personifies life, contrasts, beauty, cosmopolitanism and a modern city that beholds a rich culture and heritage. Being the second most popular tourist destinations in Australia after Sydney, Melbourne sees thousands of visitors flocking to the city, all the year around. And yes, that’s another thing that makes Melbourne a dream destination; it’s ideal for a visit all the year round; facilitating the busy and hectic schedules of all people, whether national or international.

While Sydney combines ethereal natural beauty and fabulous structural excellence, Melbourne offers an even better prospect. Not only does it score high in these two aspects, but also combines a tinge of vibrant life and all things modern that adds a silver lining to the whole experience. If Melbourne is your destination for an upcoming holiday, then here’s something that will interest you; a list of the top 10 interesting and must visit places while you are in Melbourne:

Melbourne Cricket Ground

melbourne cricket ground

As we described at the very start, you needn’t be a cricket fan to be at MCG. Its fantastic and unbelievable history takes it to the top of the must-see list of any person, of all ages and all interests. And if you are an Australian yourself, you sure do share fond memories with the matches or performances being held on the grounds. So, why not visit it and have that ecstatic feel of being one with history.

Reaching the destination

Being one of the commonest destinations for the tourists, reaching MCG has been made easier with a close network of various transports. If you have just arrived at the Airport and want to experience the thrill at the MCG immediately, the easiest way is to hire a cab that will cost you around $50-$60. Then again, if you are already in Melbourne and staying at hotels like the Crown Towers, the Westin, the Langham or the surrounding areas, a one way cab fare would sum up to around $10-$20.

Queen Victoria Market

Queen Victoria Market

A place to enjoy the charm of the old world and shop to your heart’s desires is what makes this market a ‘must-visit’ spot. Simple, friendly sellers, a wide range of items on sale and a unique essence – enjoy every moment spent at the market and give in to your desires.

Reaching the destination

An easy-to-reach market that lies in downtown Melbourne. Cab fares will cost you around $10-$20 from most of the prominent hotels in Melbourne like the Westin, Langham and several others.

The Eureka Tower

If this is your first time in Melbourne and heights give you an adrenaline rush that you look for at all times, then the Eureka Tower Skydeck is just the thing for you. Situated on the 88th floor, this Skydeck is a dream come true for the adventure lovers and surely not for the faint-hearted. Want to make it more daring? Your wishes come true with the Edge that takes you three meters out into the open, from the 88th floor and gives you the thrill of a lifetime.

The Eureka Tower

However, if you think that this is too much for you, you can enjoy the quaint beauty of the city from the Skydeck and also marvel at the beauty of the building itself that consists of gold crown that gives a perfect flashback into the Gold Rush times.

Reaching the destination

The tower can be easily reached from the Queen Victoria Market and enjoyed on the same day if you are planning to make it one of the best days of your life. The taxi fare would be around $15 and the same applies if you are planning to take a cab directly from the hotel of your stay.

Federation Square



An iconic structure built as a symbol of the centenary of the 100 years of the federation, this is a structural feat that draws the attention of the tourists from places all over the world. Although there is a fixed feeling amongst the Melburnians regarding this structure, yet there is no doubt that the Federation Square is a part and parcel of the city and creates a beautiful architectural symphony between the Victorian surroundings and the modern memorial structure.

Tourists can also enjoy the various performances that are being held year round at the place and also pay a visit to the Ian Porter Gallery that is dedicated to local art.

Reaching the destination

A drive of about barely 10 minutes, the Square can be reached at an average cost of about $15 from the important hotels in Melbourne and the neighboring areas.

National Gallery of Victoria

The National Gallery of Victoria

If history, art and culture are your fields of interest, then the National Gallery of Victoria, as the oldest art gallery in Australia, is sure to offer you the right mix of what you are in search for. If you have already been to the Federation Square and have had your fill of the beautiful creations at the Ian Porter Gallery, then the St. Kilda Street section of the Gallery will unravel masterpieces from all places over the world.

Reaching the destination

The taxi fares are at par with some other places in this list and the costs around $10-$20.

The Shrine of Remembrance

The Shine of Remembrance

A cenotaph built as a tribute to the brave soldiers who died young and old during World War I and II, the Shrine is one of Australia’s most somber and recognized landmarks. The structure resembles that of ancient Greece and plays host to numerous commemorative events and services that remember the sacrifice of the brave hearts who bought freedom to the country. The place also offers a great view of the surrounding areas and is really solemn.

Reaching the destination

A ride to the Shrine from downtown Melbourne will cost around $15 and take about 6-8 minutes.

Royal Botanic Gardens

Located very close to the CBD, the Royal Gardens is unarguably one of the best specimens of masterpiece landscaping. Spread over an impressive area of 36 hectares, this garden is known to be the home to 50,000 different kinds of plants, ensuring that, irrespective of the season of your visit, you can witness the majestic display of innumerable plant species and soak in the tranquility of the place.

Royal Botanic Gardens


Reaching the destination

A short car drive can take you the gardens and will cost at par with the other attractions from various standard and luxury hotels.

The 12 Apostles

The 12 Apostles

So far, you have witnessed the sculptural and architectural skills of mankind. Time to get acquainted with nature’s endless work of sculpturing and what beauties can they build.These gigantic rock structures, 12 in number, are located on the Great Ocean Road and are the main features of the National Park of Port Campbell.

The constant erosion by the waves and the wind for around 20 million years have led to the formation of these giant structures out of the limestone cliffs that have eroded magnificently over time. The best time to witness these rock beasts would be during the sunset or the sunrise.

Reaching the destination

The 12 Apostles are located somewhat away from the city center and would require a car journey of about 6-7 hours that would cost somewhere between $100-$200.

St. Paul’s Cathedral

St. Paul’s Cathedral

A huge cathedral built as the worship house of the Catholic Archdiocese people in the year 1868, the cathedral is an imposing structure that is sure to leave you breathless.  Its revivalistic gothic style, huge size and the utterly serene atmosphere creates an impression that can only be felt by someone who has actually visited the Cathedral. A nice place to calm yourself after a whole day of hustle and bustle in the city.

Reaching the destination

A trip to the cathedral is very cheap and costs around $10 if you are in downtown Melbourne.

The cafes and delis

Well, you may be wondering why these are on the list of Top 10 when you can have them anywhere, even in your hometown. You sure do get cafes at every other place but what you do not get is the quality coffee that Melbourne can offer.

The cafes and delis


Yes, Melbourne, apart from its history and structures, is also well-known for the coffee that it offers to the world. And thanks to that, innumerable stylish baristas have popped up all over the city that serve delicious coffee and also other delicacies that will leave you wanting for more.

Reaching the destination

Well, you many drop off at any decent café and you may also make your way to the Degraves Street that is known for its laneway dinning facilities. Enjoy your coffee and your life here in Melbourne!


The role of nursing placed in the current scenario has evolved over time, as it reported by Tanya Buchana, (1999) based on a true story. One fine day, there were hundreds of nurses gathering in a campaign holding posters and placard which had phrases written in it asking for raise in pay without added conditions. One speaker from the group in order to get a verbal response started reading the placard one by one. The nurses were excited and started cheering the speaker, who was not a nurse himself, after each placard was read. When he read the final placard, he questioned the nurses, “Is Florence Nightingale dead?” His idea was to kindle and create a spark among the group asking this stirring  final question The entire campaign of nurses went silent for a while, after which they started whispering among themselves in frenzy.

All the nurses were taken aback and silence prevailed for a very long time. After a few minutes, few of the nurses started laughing uneasily, and some even found the question offending. Some nurses from the crowd started asking the same question among them; “Is Florence Nightingale dead?”. But none of them from the crowd were able to reply back clearly. This showed the lack of certainty among the nurses when it came to the position of Florence Nightingale in the role of nursing. One possibility is that, none of them has thought about the role Nightingale has played in nursing or questioned themselves on the subjects. Further, there was not much distinction between the person Florence Nightingale was and the function her name has come to, in terms of her role of nursing.

Here, I would like to explain how nursing, an important the role in wars and military has evolved over time and the historiography of it linked to Florence Nightingale. There is a difference between history and historiography, because, history, simply means what has happened in the past, but on the other hand, historiography is what has been written about what happened in the past. History is a very vast term and it typically depicts what happened every day and most of it is not recorded.

According to the great historians Michael de Certeau, Hayden White and Michael Faucault, history is nothing but a recording or writing of what happened in the past. According to them, history, which is written, is greatly influenced by the political conditions as well as the power relations of the situation when it is written (Reznick,2011).

This paper does not praise or censure Florence Nightingale or her contribution to the field of nursing. This is just a mere attempt to represent the reader with an efficient history with no criticisms or credibility. As a matter of fact, it is not possible to ignore the existence of a Florence Nightingale, when we describe about the history of nursing. When we talk about nursing, it has been greatly influenced by her personality and her role. However, discourse will not be able to reproduce what Florence Nightingale had done in reality, as against what is produced arc virtual Florence Nightingale (cl. de Certeau 1988:8). The account in this is written by a nurse to be read by nurses to help them enhance the role and responsibility.

War nurse 5


The accounts of history of nursing written in both 19th and early 20th centuries have undergone a lot of criticism and were published somewhere in the 1980s. This resulted in the production of the revisionist accounts (Davies, 2007). Most of the reports that were published or recorded prior to 1960 were just used to rationalise the process of professionalization (Rafferty, 2000). As per the historians, this was the right approach and it was used to bring in more new entrants into this profession, and also to differentiate trained nurses, women who have been doing this without much training as they had claimed the title before the nursing reforms were introduced in the mid 19th century , (Nelson, 2002 ).

History was generally recorded and written in a congratulatory style. This was to provide a simple, precise and uncomplicated version of the history to the readers. It did not address the economic reality or complexity of the situation, social and other important conditions that influenced nursing. Further, it did not even account the role of gender or class or religion played (Mortimer, 2005; Sweet, 2007). This is not a single case that has to be ruled out while writing about the history of nursing. One can see that on the accounts of history of nursing in wars, it features a number of historical events and accounts, and it is even recorded in histories of hospitals written by nurses (Newby, 1985) and doctors (Granshaw, 1989). One can find that, the importance given to the mainstream society when describing how nursing operated or developed in minimal to nil(Margaret  et al 2002).

In this paper, we will discuss the important issues that had great amount of influence on evolution of nursing. Further, we can also discuss how the nursing management developed from its roots in the 19th century to the present stage. This will help us understand the organisation of nursing as a whole in a contemporary way.

When we take into account the development of management of nursing in the United Kingdom, there are 2 different periods that seem to have been mentioned over and over again in the literature. The 1st one is between the middle and the end of the 19th century and the 2nd one is between after the creation of National Health Service in 1940s and the introduction of General Management in 1980s ( Moiden, 2002).

war nurse 4

Role of Nursing during the Wartime

The role played by the American nurses during the wartime for the American military is undeniably one of the most important aspects. The nurse’s duty was very simple in military; which is to provide care and aid to all the soldiers who had wounded themselves in the war. Further, it was also their responsibility to take care of the casualties of the war. If we go through the history we will understand that the view of a military nurse has changed to a greater extent from that of a simple recyclable source used only during the military necessity to be called upon only during the time of crisis to part of the team.

Florence Nightingale, with a team of 38 nurses sailed a ship to Turkey to be an unwelcomed guest and provided with an appalled situation and very poor sanitary facility. Further, both the military doctors and the health officers had refused to take into account Florence’s attempts to revamp the military hospital. Only later, when Florence succeeded in the Crimean War, high standards for a nurse and the practice of nursing was established. Post which the number of nursing schools increased and the growth and development of the schools also improved the qualification of nurses and they came to be officially recognised, even in the military hospitals (Buchana, 1999).

war nurse 2

The American Civil War and Nursing

It was only during the American Civil War that women were offered responsibility and introduced as female staff, in the traditional male dominated military environment. This also had a significant improvement of women’s liberalisation in the later days in American society (“Civil War Nurses: The Angels of the Battlefield,” N.D.). The two most important women in revolutionising the nursing concepts were Dorothea Dix and Clara Barton. They were very powerful and changed the concept of nursing during the Civil War. Both of them worked independently in organising a nursing corps, which concentrated on taking care of the sick and wounded from the war. They were also given the title of Superintendent of Women Nurses. Dorothea Dix also known as the ‘Dragon Dix’ was worthy of the title. She also changed the concept and hired middle-aged women who had plain looks to serve as important nurses in Army Medical Bureau. She was proud of her nickname as she successfully created the country’s 1st professional nursing corps Army. Post-Civil War, Clara Barton headed the creation of American branch of the International Red Cross. She was a schoolteacher who shifted base from Massachusetts to Washington to provide nursing care for the injured soldiers of war. By the time, the Healthcare had improved nationwide better and this helped the nurses aid the injured and sick from the war disasters. Further, as they had developed experience, they were also well prepared to manage the future wars or similar conditions, according for a crisis situation ( Blum,2011)

The sign of health care

The World War- I

In 1917, when the United States joined the World War, the number of nurses was very low. However, over a period of time, the number of nurses recruited for active duty increased and it did not in decrease for over a year. When the war ended in November 1918, there are over 21,000 active nurses as part of the ANC and around thousand 400 nurses as a part of the NNC (Reznick ,2011; Cox, 2001).

As the number of casualties during the World War- I was very high, the number of nurses who were well trained and skilled was wanted in great demand. The American Red Cross served as a wing that supplied the well trained and skilled nurses to both the Army and Navy to serve as a part of the wartime nurse corps (“Health and Medicine: Red Cross and World War I,” n.d.). The duty of ANC was to serve in the evacuation zones, mobile travelling units or the surgical units which cared for the wounded. Further, the nurses who work in the hospital train and transport ships during the war throughout the European continent, attending to the soldiers were wounded and sick and those crossing the Atlantic Ocean back to the country (Cox, 2001). This was when the nursing profession had reached its new height. Further, it was the idea of the Navy to create base hospitals in Ireland, Scotland and France. Later they sent in small groups of nurses and mobile units to stay close to the battlefronts. Despite the fact that the nurses were able to provide onsite care for the wounded soldiers, their contribution to serving those returned soldiers back home was undeniably excellent and considered as an accomplishment by the nurse corps. Most of the nurse is in the team served in this providing the basic care to the soldiers and also training the new nurses in the corps. As this was the pre-antibiotic era, the nurses gave priority to clean and hygienic environments, the better chances of saving the wounded (“Nurses and the U.S. Navy, 1917-1919,” 2005).

After a few years, the number of active nurses decreased gradually as the need for them decrease as well. However, though military did not need the number of nurses, the government realised that no war can be won without the help of health care providers. So, this was one of the breaking point that gave the nursing profession a good recognition and was acknowledged for what it was worth.

war nurse 1

World War- II

For the Americans, the world was started on December 17, 1941, after the Pearl Harbor was bombarded by the Japanese army. Post which NNC and ANC recruited 69,000 nurses to take care of the wounded and sick soldiers.They were divided into groups and they worked in the field onsite, medical transport planes, evacuation, hospitals, hospital ships and hospital trains. The medical transport planes were launched as a new part and were called Flight Nursing (Commager, 2002).

When the war began, they were awarded the ‘relative ranking’ and recognised as officers and even provided uniforms. But, they were not eligible for commissions or privileges that were given to the men who served in the Army. Later in the year 1944 22nd June, the Congress government granted the nurses the same privileges and temporary officers rank to all the ANC and NNC nurses who deserved. They were also given the same benefits and commissions, rights and pay at par with the officer of the same cadre. The compassion and the hard work of the nurses had also received the acknowledgement and praises from the society (Blum,2011;Kalisch&Kalisch, 2004).

As the nurses were well-trained and able to provide proper nursing care to all the wounded in the World War II, almost 96 soldiers out of hundred who were wounded were saved. This means, only about a 4% of the injured and diseased soldiers died. After end of the war, the society looked upon the field of nursing and as a dignified profession and acknowledged the women who served as nurses in the war. The government announced free nursing education to be provided to all interested in deserving candidates till 1948. As the nurses from the military services had skills developed through experience, they were able to handle wounds and deaths better (Bellafaire, 1993).

War Nurse 3

The War of Vietnam

The Vietnam War which happened between 1959 and 1975 proved to be a very difficult time for the Americans. The need for nurses increased rapidly and the military started recruiting throughout the period. According to an account from, there was already a shortage of nurses in the society. Most of them were reluctant to go and serve in the army as they had opportunities to serve the civilians. The government announced financial aid to all the nurses who served in the Army during the Vietnam War. Recruitment of nurses in the military proved to be even difficult because, the civilian hospitals in the country offered better pay packages and also better working conditions (Teerawichitchainan, 2012; Kalisch&Kalisch, 2004)


Iran-Iraq War -1980-88

The Iranian nurses performed most important roles during Iran-Iraq war during 1980-88. The nature of nursing practice in chemical emergency departments was very crucial during this war. The clinical tasks were allocated to the specific nurses in a situation in which they become exposed to chemically contaminated patients and direct attacks on emergency department. Most of the nurses become affected from a gas “Mustard Gas” and suffered from eye, skin and respiratory system diseases. Many of them are still suffering from ill effects of that chemical.(Firouzkouhi et al 2013)


Gulf and Afghanistan war:

Around 1980s feminist movement has gained advancement in the country and hence women became more and more liberal. Most of them in when given an option to choose being just a mother/ housewife chose to be a business owner as well as a mother. During this time, the military nurses had to be deployed to Afghanistan in 1990s. It further complicated the family situation as Gulf War was the 1st incident in which mothers left their children behind to work in a different country (Schoenfeld, 2012).

During this period, 2200 nurses were recruited and appointed by the military moved to the Middle East under ‘Operation Desert Shield’ . As they had received ample training and prepared for the worst case scenario and distress situations they were able to handle the casualties better. This was the 1st war in American history in which the deployable medical systems were used and combat support hospitals were established. These combat support Hospital were called DEPMEDS and they were constructed using rigid aluminum tents. They were well equipped with pharmacy, radiology, laboratory, surgery departments and sterilisation departments. This was the 1st time when the infliction of diseases faced by the nurses was reduced to a greater extent due to high level of hygiene (Schoenfeld, (2012).

In this period of time, the US military was able to develop excellent combat surgical assets. In this, any injured member can be immediately drawn from the battlefield to the medical facility and at the same time treated during the transportation.

During Iran and Afghanistan wars in 1990s, the Critical Care Air Transport(CCAT) team were used to a larger extend. The critical care team had well-trained physician, respiratory therapist and a critical care nurse. These units are generally called to transfer those who have been wounded severely in the war and to stabilise physical condition of wounded soldiers. The team provides medical care, en route to the hospital, be it out of the war zone or back home to United States. The care given to the wounded patient might vary right from basic first aid care do even life support interventions. This depends upon the availability of the surgeons or the specialised physician (Schoenfeld, 2012).


The Americans War on Terror

When the incidence of September 11 took place, the policies in establishing the Forward Surgical Teams (FST) and Combat Support Hospitals (CSHs) were in the infancy stage. Only during this incident, and after the establishment of global war on terror, the combat surgical units were used. As the military is aware of the nature of the war and the capability of the enemy, FST or CSHs has never been deployed for the intended purpose. However, it has been functioning as medical treatment centers, and combat support centers during a crisis situation. However, they have not come to a conclusion as to which model best suits the asymmetrical battlefield.  Responsibility was handed over to a team of experts to determine which would serve the purpose better. The mortality rates of people who went for initial treatment to an FST unit were compared to a member receiving all the treatments from CSH. Regardless of the differences, capabilities, as well as the supplies, they were not able to find any reportable statistical difference in terms of survival between the CSHs and FSTs (Garfield et al, 2003).

Nursing management & education in the 19th century

A defining feature of much of the literature about this period is its concentration on the actions and influence of Florence Nightingale. She indeed performed a leading role in nursing reformations and introduced the word “ matrons” in the  hospitals, as part of a new regime which constituted a clean break with the past (Girvin, 1996;Moiden, 2002). The skills introduced by Nightingale were marvelous and her supporters advocated her views, and emphasised  application in the success of the Nightingale School of Nursing (Margaret  et al 2002).

In 1854, she was appointed head of nursing school and she assumed the responsibilities when it was established in 1860. She held this office for 33 years, until some feminists started raising objection on failure and abilities along with Bonham-Carter who was secretary of the Nightingale Fund. However, Nightingale contributed a pioneer role in the reform of nursing to Wardroper in 1896 and depicted herself as a powerful force in its development.This positive presentation of Wardroper’s contribution, in contrast to Nightingale’s views of her qualities when she was alive, can be read as a selective reporting of events at a later point in order to enhance the celebratory (Baly, 1997).

In the19th century, attentions were focused on development and improvement of hospital nursing for the sick poor, both in the voluntary and poor public hospitals. These developments have attracted extensive attention from historians and consequently, the history of nursing become associated with the history of nursing in the voluntary general hospital in later decades of 20th century (Carpenter, 1980; Rosenberg, 1982).  Consequently, the management of nursing is discussed as a whole for volunteer hospitals and development of systems in general nursing (Margaret et al 2002).

In the voluntary hospitals, the medical staff acquired extra powers by their involvement in all decision making committees. Margaret et al (2002), emphasized on the role matron for nursing managements and other in house affairs of the hospitals. However, the role and function of the matron were affected by the constitution of rules developed by the National Health Service in 1948 which resulted into grouping of hospitals together for administrative purposes. The matron was forced to work in partnership with the senior administrations of the medical staff to manage the individual hospitals. In England and Wales the Matron was supposed to be present in committee meetings for involving nurses in any discussion regarding them which may be raised by the Governing Body. In this way the matron of the individual hospital became relegated in terms of decision and policy making at the highest level in the new local health service structure (Redman, 2008, Wildman and Hewison, 2009)

  1. Education and management in Australia

As per Margaret et al, (2010), the new nurses found difficulty in Australia while discussing the history of nursing. While most of the students valued teaching history of nursing, they found that the curriculum was over emphasising on technical skills and requirements. At the same time the new nurses were expected to be able to meet unrealistic work pressure. Further, they were also expected to be ready with little to no training at all. According to them, the history was only able to help them to develop the critical thinking and improve professional identity as a nursing student. Including nursing history in the curriculum will help the prospective nurses to prepare themselves to maintain professional ethics and also motivate them and reinforce their identity.

  1. Education and management in Egypt and China

Similarly, in countries like Egypt, the nursing education system developed based on the influence of social, political and economic structure of the current scenario. We can only conclude that most of the developing countries when compared to each other showed that the development of this is totally dependent upon the efforts put in to improve the educational background of the nurses. However, the countries that gave importance and improved their educational preparation based on the requirements of the population showed better nursing education system. Neither could Egypt nor China were able to increase the entrance requirements (Chenjuan et al 2012).

  1. Education and management in Iraq

The war inflicted country of Iraq has significantly suffered due to the wars and this in turn has taken a huge toll on the health system of the country. As the situation has been the same for over 20 years, there is tremendous stress on the health system. The health professionals are not well equipped or skilled as they need to improve their understanding on the current problems. First and foremost, they should take steps to review and improve the health care system and start supporting and accepting their nursing staff. Over the last 5 years, many organisations which include NGOs and union nation delegates have stressed the importance of health-care system and the improvement of the country has to make in it. The government should take measures to review and then take measures to strategise the development of health system, resolve current issues and also improve the quality of nursing (Garfield et al, 2003)

As  discussed, due attention was given for improvement of nursing practices, management, and education after Crimean War, consequently fatality rate dropped in subsequent wars.  The percentage of fatality rate in word war 11, Vietnam, Iraq (Operation desert storm),Gulf and Afghanistan war is presented graphically in figure-1(Schoenfeld, 2012).


Nursing Informatics

Nursing informatics is a technique which is developed to use nurse’s information by computer technology .Nursing informatics enhances nursing knowledge and practice by providing better management.

Baker (2012) studied nursing informatics and elaborates different effects on nurses. He considered system and science to coordinate arrangement of working elements for development of precise measurement of knowledge. He divided the research into cognitive, information, computer and nursing science and presented the data analysed in graphical form to evaluate overall nursing informatics. The graphical representation is shown in the figure by redrawing t data.

Saba (1997) provided overview of medical Informatics to focus the new nursing specialties. The researcher provided an overview of data standards, goals, and scope and research initiatives to design the advanced status of nursing informatics



 Fig-2:  Nursing Informatics

Background on the Crisis

Regardless of the need for war on Iraq, the nurses should be able to understand the health consequences that the Iraqi civilian population is facing. What kind of health facility should do the Iraqi health professional and provided to the civilians? First-hand accounts should be provided which includes historical context, cultural and unbiased observations. After the Iranian war ended in 1989, the number of nurses in the country had increased to about 12,687, out of which about 6000 of them were qualified. After the 1990, almost 20 universities offered bachelorette coldness in nursing. By the end of the year 2000, the number of nurses in the country increased to about 56,800 out of which about 50% of them hold bachelorette degree as per the country’s financial ministry. However, this information should be analysed as the available data between 1978 and 1997 shows a lower figure of prospective graduating trained nurses. As there are constraints on women in the country, both culturally and socially, the war has worsened the situation further and also reduced the economy. This is not a case of just the nursing but overall in a wider context (Hodgson, 2007; Garfield,2003).



The Famous Personalities in the History of Wars

A survey conducted by Margaret et al, 2010, on the Australian nurses and the role played by them showed the contributions made by a number of historical personalities, specifically those who served during the war period. The 1st name that is mentioned is Florence Nightingale, who is considered to be the lady who changed the outlook of nursing. Few other names are Mary Seacole, Edith Cavell, Mother Teresa and Dorothy Dix; they are internationally famous nurses. The 2 personalities who changed the face of nursing during the civil war in America; Clara Barton and Dorothea Dix get a special mention in our review (“Civil War Nurses: The Angels of the Battlefield,” N.D.). Another famous personality who came to be famous during the Vietnam War is Diana Carlson Evans. The Russian nurse Alexander Kerensky was the one who changed the face of nursing in Russia (Alexandra Feodorovna: Alix of Hesse”n.d). Likewise, 2 other famous personalities in the field of nursing are Cheryl Ruff ( Rushton et al, 2008) , who made tremendous contributions to nursing in the operation ‘Desert Storm’ that took place during the Iran War and Ana Justina Ferreira Neri who contributed from Brazil during the Paraguayan War (“Paraguayan War” n.d.)

However, it would be a difficult task to remember and mention the names of all the nurses who had served their duties and saved the lives of millions of soldiers and civilians during the wartime. The history behind their life can only be brought to limelight through biographical accounts, which in turn will inspire the aspiring nurses to contribute. Further, it will also help them be prepared, gain confidence, be resilient and at the same time overcome the challenges. However, one should understand that all achievements and struggles were not achieved by single personalities or in isolation.


An average American in the real sense witnessed the war or ‘saw’ the war and the effect it had on people via clips and pictures that were telecasted in the TV and published in newspapers. The Vietnam War showed the face of violence to the civilians who had no idea how wrathful a war would be in reality. When the soldiers returned back home from Vietnam they received a very low support by the civilians. However, this was the war in which the nurses who served in the military and helped millions of soldiers receive acknowledgement and praise. Vietnam Women’s Memorial shows the respect and support for all the military nurses who had worked in the war. One can say that though war brought about death, pain and tragedy, it also helped in improving the medical and nursing care. Further, this was also the time when the military personnel and the government understood the importance of nurses, as well as the effect of proper medical and emotional care to the wounded soldiers. After the Crimean war ended, the nursing profession gained new heights. To Support the war on terrorism by the Americans; over 2000 military nurses who are well trained and equipped, have been deployed to Iraq. One can never know what the positive or negative effects a war will have on any country, but nursing profession will definitely serve its purpose, just like it served in all its wars and crisis situations.




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